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Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Developing Your Screenplay

Here is some info on Field's formula and analysis of the same on Thelma and Louise:

Here is an article from

Below is the formula from Field's book:





Pinch I
Pinch II





Theme of action
Theme of action

Plot Point I
Plot point II
The Set-up



Here is a snippet from
Character and story are always intertwined, but listed in parenthesis is the stronger focus of the book.
  • The Art of Dramatic Writing, Lajos Egri - This is not for everyone. The book was written in 1946, specifically for playwriting, but I highly recommend it for screenwriting. Its depth of information converts over well for the screenplay format. (Character Development, Story Structure)
  • Aristotle's Poetics - Aristotle IS the master. He was the very first to research and analyze story structure. The fundamentals haven't changed. (Story Structure)
  • The Hero with a Thousand Faces, by Joseph Campbell - This book is not the easiest read, but explains the hero's journey by using the classic myth structure. (Story Structure, Character Development)
  • The Writer's Journey, by Christopher Vogler - This is like the "Cliff Notes" version of The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Its content is taken directly from it, sifting out a lot, and focusing on myth structure for screenwriters. But like "Cliff Notes" it waters down the intricate details. (Story Structure)
  • Stealing Fire from the Gods, by James Bonnet - Also based on Campbell's research on mythic structure, but it also examines the structure of fables and fairly tales. It will help you apply these golden forms to you own writing and give you a new insight into story development. (Story Structure, Story Development)
  • Screenwriting From the Heart, by James Ryan - A unique approach that will help to write a character-driven screenplay. (Character Development)
  • Screenplay, by Syd Field - Known for converting plot points to page numbers. It is a good basis to begin learning screenplay structure, but WARNING -- be careful about plopping your plot points onto pre-established page numbers. This rigid form of writing makes formulaic and wooden screenplays. (Screenplay Structure)
See this too:
See this article on character development also:

Another Formula for your Script

I stumbled upon the following at

It introduces what is called narratemes. Real neat - enjoy.

The first seven narratemes introduce the initial story situation: who, where, when, how and why.

  1. Something’s Missing: Someone, (or something) is missing or is in danger in the lead character’s, (hero’s) world.
  2. The Warning: The hero is cautioned: “You are too young, inexperienced or weak." A challenge or warning.
  3. Violation: The antagonist disturbs the peace, poses a threat. Can be a real or perceived danger.
  4. Reconnaissance: The antagonist often wants to know where the children or a precious object are located.
  5. Delivery: The antagonist obtains useful information which he may use against the protagonist.
  6. Trickery: The antagonist tries to fool the hero in order to steal something of value or threaten someone important to the protagonist.
  7. Complicity: The hero falls for it hook, line and sinker and unwittingly helps the antagonist.

Now, the story really begins! In folktales the hero would leave on his/her quest by the end of this next sequence of narratemes.

  1. Villainy and Lack: The antagonist threatens or harms someone important to the hero, or something else which affects others is suddenly missing.
  2. The Challenge: The hero discovers, or is informed of the “lack" and is requested, or feels obligated to help.
  3. Counteraction: The protagonist, (as any hero would) chooses to accept the challenge or assignment despite the clear danger.
  4. Departure: The hero leaves and is, (often accidentally) joined by another character known as the “helper" or “provider."

In the next sequence, the hero sets out on his/her quest. He/she may or not get assistance from the “helper," (which may secretly be working for the antagonist) but the hero’s goal is clear at this point.

  1. The Test: The protagonist is soon challenged, either by the “helper," or someone else needing assistance, (but not necessarily the antagonist).
  2. Reaction: Our hero responds positively and bravely to the test, but may or may not succeed at this time.
  3. Acquisition: In a folktale the hero may obtain a magical object as a result of his actions. In contemporary dramas, he learns a skill or obtains important information. As a result, other characters may offer help.
  4. Transport: Usually, the hero must travel to another location to reach his goal where he is unwelcomed or will be in danger.
  5. Confrontation: The hero and antagonist fight. This may not be the climatic battle and the hero may lose this round.
  6. Injury: The hero is injured, “marked," or set back in his quest, but not mortally wounded.
  7. Victory: Our hero beats the bad guy, but his victory may only be temporary and actually strengthen the antagonist.
  8. Resolution: The initial “lack" may or may not have been fixed, but someone is rescued or something is returned through the direct efforts of the hero.

In many stories this might be the story’s end as our hero returns and all is well. However, Propp provides an additional story possibility. Many of his suggestions are optional from now on.

  1. The Hero Returns: The hero leaves the place he initially went to for his quest and heads back home.
  2. Pursuit: The hero is chased by the antagonist who tries again to kill him or take back what the hero has obtained.
  3. The Rescue: The hero narrowly escapes, often through the assistance of the “helper," or due to a new skill or moral realization.
  4. Back Home: Our hero gets back home but he/she is unrecognized or must hide from danger.
  5. The False Claim: Because the hero appears absent, others may spread false rumors or question his heroic character.
  6. The Difficult Task: This is a direct challenge to the hero who must do something which seems impossible, (i.e., get the golden fleece, fight a dragon).
  7. Task Performed: The protagonist proves again his mettle by accomplishing the impossible task.
  8. Recognition: The protagonist is acknowledged by someone who is important to the hero. He has proved himself.
  9. False Claim is Exposed: The false hero is usually revealed as a direct result of the hero having performed the impossible task.
  10. Acknowledgement: The hero is seen in a new light and his heroism is recognized by everyone else.
  11. The Hero Wins: The bad guy is vanquished by the hero in a climatic battle, usually in physical combat. The false hero is often punished as well.
  12. The Hero Returns: In folktales the hero usually marries a beautiful princess and ascends the throne. In contemporary screenplays the hero gets the girl and his character has been changed forever.

Friday, December 24, 2010


Having deliberately made up my mind to write a story in this holiday season, I struggled (again) to generate a nice hook. Then I landed on this page which gave the following ideas:

"A teenager is mistakenly sent into the past, where he must make sure his mother and father meet and fall in love; he then has to get back to the future."

"A group of ex-psychic investigators start a commercial ghost extermination business in New York City."

"A defense attorney falls in love with her client. As the trial progresses, she doesn't know if she's sleeping with an innocent man, or a murderer."

"A rotten kid captures the monster under the bed. He gets seduced into the dark underworld, to the point where he almost becomes a monster himself."

"A guy writes a letter breaking up with his girlfriend, sends it OVERNIGHT EXPRESS. He changes his mind, chases the letter across country, and falls in love along the way."

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Sample Budget for $40M movie

Recently I was reading another book on movie and money (was the title Movie Money - I dont quite remember now) but I found this sample budget in it and thought this might be usefuls for budding movie makers out there. (Sorry I cant rember the correct title of the book and hence couldnt five the right credit)

Budget for a $40M film

Above the line
Story $300,000.00
Scenario $1,450,000.00
Producer $1,000,000.00
Director $3,300,000.00
Principle Cast $11,670,000.00
Supporting Cast $950,000.00
Stunts $65,000.00
Fringe Benefits $800,000.00
Travel & Living $720,000.00
Above the line total $20,255,000.00

Below the line
Extras/Stand-ins $530,000.00
Production Staff $980,000.00
Art Department $580,000.00
Camera $950,000.00
Set Construction $1,750,000.00
Miniatures $760,000.00
Set Operations $850,000.00
Electrical $720,000.00
Special Effects $180,000.00
Set Dressing $660,000.00
Props $290,000.00
Action Props $80,000.00
Wardrobe $520,000.00
Makeup & Hair $340,000.00
Production Sound $230,000.00
Transportatoin $1,400,000.00
Location Expense $1,700,000.00
process Photography $550,000.00
Production Dailies $350,000.00
Below the line travel $710,000.00
Fringes $2,100,000.00
Tests $60,000.00
Facilities Fees $170,000.00
Production total $16,460,000.00
Post Production
Editing $500,000.00
Music $1,300,000.00
Post production sound $430,000.00
Stock shots $25,000.00
Titles $55,000.00
Opticals, mattes, inserts $55,000.00
Laboratory processing $240,000.00
Fringe benefits $80,000.00
Post production total $2,685,000.00

Other direct costs
Administrative expenses $260,000.00
Insurance $200,000.00
Publicity $120,000.00
Fringe benefits $20,000.00
Other direct costs total $600,000.00

Below the line total $19,745,000.00

Total budget $40,000,000.00

Saturday, November 13, 2010

Movie Money & Hollywood Economist Revisited

I found Edward Jay Epstein's home page. He has posted lots of articles! Check them out...
Also here is another link and of course this one that I thought might be useful to tuck in here...

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Shaking the Money Tree

OMG! Morrie did see this post!! Pls see the comments below!! Check out for more info on Morrie's book.
I read the book Shaking the Money Tree by Morrie Warshawski - rather I gave it a detailed browsing. Here are some of the topics I found interesting in it:

The initial section that Morrie briefly concentrates on: Text Color

  • Mission (Why you want to be a filmmaker? What do you want to accomplish?),
  • Vision (Paint a future vision...) and
  • Values (your core values which you want to hold at all costs)

seem to have sneaked in from career building camp; none the less it is valuable if it is your career. In a sense mission and vision will keep you motivated while values will throw you a guiding light.

I liked the tips on setting easy wins and long term goals. If you are serious you could try to create

  • "5 easy/quick wins" and
  • "5 bold moves".

I agree that these are important for your morale.

Anyways, I thought the next section was more valuable to me... it is where Morrie talks about the pitch.

  • Create an elevator pitch and polish it; and practise delivering it too. You should be able to describe the genre, visual appeal and probably throw a couple of similar movie names to convey what you have in mind.
  • Competition: Pick at least 5 movies that are similar to your movie. Differentiate your move along the following areas:
    • Style
    • Content
    • Timing
    • Depth
    • Audience
  • Target Audience: You have to determine to whom you want to target your movie to. "Everyone" is not the right answer. Think along the lines of demographics and psychographics. You could try to define the target audience and also who the audience is not. Here are the broad audience types:
    • Geography
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Race
    • Religion
    • Income level
    • Educational background
    • Political affiliation
    • Occupation
    • Lifestyle
    • Hobbies
    • Interests
  • Distribution: What is your strategy? Think how you would exploit the following channels:
    • Festivals
    • Theatrical
    • Cable TV
    • Public Television (local and national)
    • Video and DVD
    • Educational markets and libraries
    • Internet
  • Team: Is the core team experienced enough to produce this movie?
  • Schedule: Rough time line with major milestones. When do you expect to finish the movie etc.
  • Budget: You need to have the regular budget and the "scrappy" version of the same. The scrappy version is for your eyes only and to be used when you are running out of money during production. Also pick a few similar movies and see how the dollars were spread. This would serve as a quick validation on what you have arrived at.

Thursday, October 28, 2010

How can I fund my movie...?

This is one topic every indie movie maker wants to master... yet there is not much openly available info. Here is what I stumbled upon, will add more later:
I also stumbled upon this book The Hollywood Economist: The Hidden Financial Reality Behind the Movies. You should read it. I will try to summarize some interesting topics soon.

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Look right at you!

Have you ever debated if you would want your actor to look straight at the lens or off to one side? You are not alone. I personally want my actors to bond with my audience. Here is a blog article from one of my instructors at De Anza. What do you think?

Thursday, September 2, 2010

Screenwriting: What makes a good script?

Here is another good website that I stumbled upon: Here is a snippet.

Characters: The movies you loved most featured characters that swept you up, who captivated your emotions, got you involved. The audience viewing a movie not only wants to be interested in and care about the people they see on the screen, they want to be passionate about them, whether they like them or not. Great heroes and heroines inspire us; great villains make us want to jump into the screen!

Quest: There is always something at stake in a good movie. Not
just something someone wants, something that must be acquired, no matter what
the risk, as in Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark. Or something
highly desired by as many main characters as possible, like the small black
statue in The Maltese Falcon. Some times it can be an intangible thing, like the
freedom of a people in Lawrence of Arabia or Gandhi. All these things drive the
character's quest, even gives the hero superhuman strength. It can be something
personal (romance) or for the good of all (saving the world from aliens) but it
must be powerful and grow more desperate as the story unfolds

Conflict: There are always obstacles, which provide that catchword that actors love so much -- conflict. This is the heart of drama. Someone wants something and people and things keep getting in the way of them achieving the goal. At times, the obstacles can be common to
both the hero and villain, and the ultimate goal a laudable one for both
parties, as in Jingle All The Way. In that film, Arnold Schwarzenegger and
Sinbad battle to achieve the same goal--the acquisition of the last popular
action figure for sale that Christmas season. Both of them have promised their
son, and they must not fail. Conflict and obstacles can be physical or
emotional. But they have to be in your story or you don't really have a story

Wound: In most good stories, the protagonist will also have an inner obstacle, some
mental or even spiritual problem, that will be resolved by the time s/he reaches
the outward, physical goal of the story. Some people call this inner demon a
"ghost," while others call in a "wound."

Hook: You need a hook. That's a songwriting term that describes that thing that catches the public's attention. A popular Hollywood term is a "high concept." A better idea might be a simple "What if?" In Galaxy Quest, for example, the concept is "What if the washed-up actors from the crew of a cancelled but still popular sci-fi TV show are pressed into a real war in space
by aliens who think the TV show broadcasts they received were documentaries?" A
good enough "what if?" will set your script apart from the pack. It is why
people will leave the comfort of their homes and plunk down their hard-earned
bucks at the local cineplex.

This site has lots of information. Check it out:

Sunday, July 18, 2010



Check out --

Looking for more helpful hints?


Here is a sample of a script from BBC's Standard format for films and single TV drama

Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Something on Computers

Recently I was browsing the web and found these good wikipedia articles.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Scriptwriting formula

Have you ever checked out ?
Checkout the section on the "theories on writing a screenplay". I liked Syd Field's Paradigm.
Here is a copy/paste of the same:

Syd Field's Paradigm
Screenwriting guru Syd Field wrote the seminal book
Screenplay, and posited a new theory, which he called the Paradigm. Field
noticed that in a 120-page screenplay, Act Two was notoriously boring, and was
also twice the length of Acts One and Three. He also noticed that an important
dramatic event usually occurred at the middle of the picture, which implied to
him that the middle act was actually two acts in one. So the Three Act Structure
is notated 1, 2a, 2b, 3, resulting in Aristotle's Three Acts divided into four

Field also introduced the idea of Plot Points into screenwriting
theory. Plot Points are important structural functions that happen in
approximately the same place in most successful movies, like the verses and
choruses in a popular song. In subsequent books, Field has added to his original
list, and students of his like Viki King and Linda Seger have added to the list
of Plot Points. Here is a current list of the major Plot Points that are
congruent with Field's Paradigm:

Opening Image: The first image in the
screenplay should summarize the entire film, especially its tone. Often, writers
go back and redo this as the last thing before submitting the script.

Inciting Incident: Also called the catalyst, this is the point in the
story when the Protagonist encounters the problem that will change their life.
This is when the detective is assigned the case, where Boy meets Girl, and where
the Comic Hero gets fired from his cushy job, forcing him into comic

Plot Point 1: The last scene in Act One, Turning Point
One is a surprising development that radically changes the Protagonist's life,
and forces him to confront the Opponent. In Star Wars, this is when Luke's
family is killed by the Empire. He has no home to go back to, so he joins the
Rebels in opposing Darth Vader.

Pinch 1: A reminder scene at about 3/8
the way through the script (halfway through Act 2a) that brings up the central
conflict of the drama, reminding us of the overall conflict. For example, in
Star Wars, Pinch 1 is the Stormtroopers attacking the Millennium Falcon in Mos
Eisley, reminding us the Empire is after the stolen plans to the Death Star
R2-D2 is carrying and Luke and Ben Kenobi are trying to get to the Rebel
Alliance (the main conflict).

Midpoint: An important scene in the middle
of the script, often a reversal of fortune or revelation that changes the
direction of the story. Field suggests that driving the story towards the
Midpoint keeps the second act from sagging.

Pinch 2: Another reminder
scene about 5/8 through the script (halfway through Act 2b) that is somehow
linked to Pinch 1 in reminding the audience about the central conflict. In Star
Wars, Pinch 2 is the Stormtroopers attacking them as they rescue the Princess in
the Death Star. Both scenes remind us of the Empire's opposition, and using the
Stormtrooper attack motif unifies both Pinches.

Plot Point 2: A dramatic
reversal that ends Act 2 and begins Act 3, which is about confrontation and
resolution. Sometimes Turning Point Two is the moment when the Hero has had
enough and is finally going to face the Opponent. Sometimes, like in Toy Story,
it's the low-point for the Hero, and he must bounce back to overcome the odds in
Act 3.

Showdown: About midway through Act 3, the Protagonist will
confront the Main Problem of the story and either overcome it, or come to a
tragic end.

Resolution: The issues of the story are resolved.

Tag: An epilogue, tying up the loose ends of the story, giving the
audience closure. This is also known as denouement. In general, films in recent
decades have had longer denouements than films made in the 1970s or earlier.

Sunday, June 6, 2010

The Real Deal

As I think more and more about creating a realistic character for a screen play, I am more and more drawn to shape the character based on learning from great authors (thanks Dad for suggesting this).
As you might know thoughts lead to actions; repeated actions lead to habits; such habits form one's character; and character leads to destiny. So to change your destiny change your thoughts.
Use the same formula to shape or transform a character.

Sunday, May 30, 2010

Gates Notes

Did you know that Bill Gates has shared all the things that he is recently learning? Check out

Saturday, April 24, 2010

My simple formula for a movie

I have beenthinking lately for a formula for a movie and cameup with the following:
  • Introduce the characters (+s and -s of lead characters)
  • Do something interesting and grab teh attention of the audience
  • Put the hero in the middle of a problem
  • Let the hero find a solution and fail
  • Throw in a twist that completely resets all expectations
  • New bigger problem and increased stakes
  • Hero finds a solution and fails at it again
  • Let the hero confront his inner fears and find a solution that is successful

Well, what do you think?

Sunday, April 4, 2010

தமிழில் எழுதலாம் வாங்க

தமிழில் எழுத Google Transliteration Tool உபயோகப் படுத்துங்கள்.
தமிழில் எதை பற்றி எழுத என்று யோசிக்கிறீங்களா? இந்த இணைய தளத்தைப்பாருங்கள் (தமிழ்க்கல்வி); இது நல்ல முயற்சி.

மேலும் சொல்வனம், விக்கிபீடியா, காலச்சுவடு போன்ற இணைய தளங்களைப்பாருங்கள். இன்னும் கொஞ்சம் தமிழ் magazines இந்த இணையத்தளத்தில் உள்ளன.

நீங்களும் எழுதுங்கள். தமிழில்.

Saturday, March 27, 2010

How to make a scene dramatic? How to build the plot?

I liked my earlier post - or rather the one it points to... David Mamet's email. I liked it so much that I pulled it out and changed it a bit so that I can internalize it better; again the material is not mine - thanks David. Here it goes:
Screen-writing is not communicating information — though, at times, it might seem so. The audience will not tune in to watch information. You wouldn’t. I wouldn’t. No one would. The audience will only tune in and stay tuned to watch drama.
Then the question is: what is drama? Drama is the quest of the hero to overcome those things which prevent him from achieving a specific, acute goal.
We, the writers, must ask ourselves of every scene these three questions to make it dramatic:
  1. Who wants what?
  2. What happens if she won’t get it?
  3. Why now?
These questions are the ultimate tests, apply them, and their answer will tell you if the scene is dramatic or not.
If the scene is not dramatically written, it will not be dramatically acted. There is no magic fairy dust which will make a boring, useless, redundant, or merely informative scene after it leaves your typewriter into a dramatic, intriguing, watchable one. You the writers, are in charge of making sure every scene is dramatic. If the scene bores you when you read it, rest assured it will bore the actors, and will, then, bore the audience.
Every scene must be dramatic. That means: the main character must have a simple, straightforward, pressing need which impels him or her to show up in the scene. This need is why they show up in that scene. It is what the scene is about. Their attempt to get this need met will lead, at the end of the scene,to failure - this is how each scene ends. This failure will then, of necessity, propel us into the next scene. All these attempts, taken together, will, over the course of the episode, constitute the plot.
Thus each and every scene should both advance the plot, and be dramatic.
The job of the dramatist is to make the audience wonder what happens next. Not to explain to them what just happened, or to suggest to them what happens next.
Don't write like this example (which is informational and suggestive): “But, Jim, if we don’t assassinate the prime minister in the next scene, all Europe will be engulfed in flame”.
Figure out how to write scenes such that the audience will be interested in watching what happens next.
How does one strike the balance between withholding and vouchsafing information? That is the essential task of the dramatist. and the ability to do that is what separates you from the lesser species. Figure it out.

Here are the danger signals you should avoid:

  • Look at your log lines. Any log line reading “Bob and sue discuss…” is not describing a dramatic scene.
  • Any time two characters are talking about a third, the scene is a crock of shit.
  • Any time any character is saying to another “As you know”, that is, telling another character what you, the writer, need the audience to know, the scene is a crock of shit.
Do not write a crock of shit. Instead write a ripping three, four, seven minute scene which moves the story along.
  • Remember you are writing for a visual medium. Don't make it sounds like radio (Radio has no visual dimension). The camera can do the explaining for you; let it.
  • If you pretend the characters can't speak, and write a silent movie, you will be writing great drama.
  • If you deprive yourself of the crutch of narration, exposition, indeed, of speech. you will be forged to work in a new medium - telling the story in pictures (also known as screen-writing).
This is a new skill. no one does it naturally. You can train yourselves to do it, but you need to start.
So start every time with this inviolable rule: every scene must be dramatic.

Friday, March 26, 2010

Screenwriting lesson from David Mamet

Here is a part of the email from Mr. Barak Goldman - faculty at DeAnza:

Read the one and only David Mamet's lambasting of the writers on his own canceled show "The Unit".

  • He talks about characters needing a goal and conflict in every scene
  • Talks about not being expositional and explaining or telegraphing everything
  • Talks about using little to no dialogue (this coming from one of the few people who can actually write brilliant dialogue).
  • He talks about each scene needing to advance the story.

All this sound familiar? If not then you weren't paying attention in class. Read this and at least pay attention to Mr. Mamet.

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Animate using Physics and the Monkey

To all those animation enthusiasts, check out Animation fundamentals: SJSU physics for animators. Martin from DeAnza had spoken high of these. The faculty st SJSU have produced this wonderful material. This is an excellent resource. Check out these:

Another cool resource is Monkey Jam. This is a tool developed by David Perry, a Teaching Staff at DeAnza. Again a must for any aspiring animators. Enjoy!

    Saturday, February 27, 2010

    Secrets of the Great Pyramid

    I stumbled on this web site and was intrigued to see the similarity between the Pyramid and the Earth (and the moon) - this is yet another fact connecting our Earth and the Great Pyramid.
    Yet another interesting piece of information is about the construction of the Pyramid itself. See these:

    Now after visiting these Web sites you have to see these videos:
    Part 1:
    Part 2:
    Part 3:
    Part 4:
    Part 5:

    (By the way, this channel on YouTube is pretty interesting -keep those documentaries coming)

    Saturday, January 30, 2010

    Dress up your Blogspot

    Wow! guys I have to share this with you all. This is cool.
    I was browsing to find some sheet music for Illayaraja's songs and stumbled on
    Jacob Jesupatham's blog. What surprised me was not the content but the layout. How come he managed to put such a nice style sheet! I looked under the hood and found this treasure trove of Klodian: Good job Klodian!

    Anyways - if you are interested here is a bunch of sheet music for Tamil movie songs

    Tuesday, January 26, 2010

    Beat Sheets

    Have you ever wanted to see some example Beat Sheets? Check out:
    How about some more? Check out:

    Monday, January 18, 2010

    Script - Tips from Michael Hauge

    I recently stumbled upon Michael Hauge (author or Sell Your Story in 60 Seconds) and found these wonderful tips.

    If you would recollect I was searching for ways to make my hero more likable a few months ago. He has elaborated these in this above mentioned book too.

    • Introduce the hero within the first ten pages and create immediate IDENTIFICATION using:
      • sympathy,
      • jeopardy,
      • likability,
      • humor or power.
    • Give the hero a compelling DESIRE, with a clear, visible goal for her to reach by the end of the movie.
    • Provide seemingly insurmountable OBSTACLES the hero must overcome to achieve that goal.
    • Make the story CREDIBLE: your characters must behave the way people with their backgrounds would logically behave in whatever situation you have created.
    • EMPLOY SUBTEXT: avoid clichéd, on-the-nose, or “announcing” dialogue, or speeches that duplicate the action.
    • Create GROWTH for your hero by giving her an emotional fear to overcome as she pursues her goal.
    • Give the story a clear, satisfying ENDING.

    Here is what I would add: After you have written a script following all the above ask yourself whose story it is, ask if there is a singular protagonist and singular antagonist, ask if there is enough conflict all through, and ask if there is a tangible event to mark the ending.

    Remember: Movie is a Character's (protagonist) journey (plot) towards a Goal which the character desperately wants against all odds (antagonist).